Basic Concepts and Formulas in Microscopy

In order to realize the full potential of the optical microscope, one must have a firm grasp of the fundamental physical principles surrounding its operation. Important topics for understanding the microscope, such as resolution, numerical aperture, depth of field, image brightness, objective working distance, field of view, conjugate planes, and the useful magnification range, are discussed in the review articles linked below.
Review Articles
Interactive Tutorials
Selected Literature References

Contributing Authors

Kenneth R. Spring - Scientific Consultant, Lusby, Maryland, 20657.

Hiroshi Komatsu - Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Martin L. Scott - Scientific Imaging, 231 Vassar St., Rochester, New York, 14607.

Stanley A. Schwartz - Nikon Instruments Inc., 1300 Walt Whitman Rd., Melville, New York, 11747.

Thomas J. Fellers, Kathleen E. Carr, Matthew Parry-Hill, and Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.