Ceratopogonids (Diptera) Videos
Biting midges, also called sand flies, no-see-ums, and punkies, are the smallest of the biting flies. They are well known for their painful bites to humans and animals, but some species bite only other insects. As adults, they can be found living in moist soil, rotting wood, cow dung, salt marshes, tree holes, and cacti. As larvae, they live in the water where they feed on detritus, yeast, or algae. One genus of ceratatoponigid, Forcipomyia, holds the world record for wing beat frequency in insects -- 1046 Hertz (cycles per second) or 62,760 wing beats per minute.
Chironomids, the non-biting midges are one of the most diverse and widespread dipteran groups known. They inhabit virtually the entire range of aquatic ecosystems, both fresh and marine, as well as semi-terrestrial and terrestrial habitats. Most species have aquatic wormlike larval stages that start as egg masses laid on the water surface. After going through a pupal stage, floating at the surface of the water, a full-grown midge emerges and flies away.