Multiphoton Microscopy Literature References

Multiphoton microscopy (also known as non-linear or two-photon microscopy) is an alternative to laser scanning (single photon) or deconvolution microscopy that provides distinct and clear advantages for three-dimensional imaging. Specifically, multiphoton excitation is superior for imaging living cells that reside within intact tissues such as brain slices, embryos, whole organs, and even entire animals. The technique provides optical sectioning with reduced absorption of excitation light in specimen regions removed from the objective focal plane, thus minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. The longer excitation wavelengths also enable increased depth penetration over confocal microscopy and are therefore more useful to deep imaging.
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