The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
Refractive Index (Index of Refraction)
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
Introduction to Polarized Light
Discussion of birefringence, Brewster's angle, and various forms of polarized light.
Introduction to Phase Contrast Microscopy
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
Introduction to Fluorescence Microscopy
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
Polarized Light Microscopy
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
Principles of Birefringence
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
Introduction to Fluorescent Proteins
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Depth of Field and Depth of Focus
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
Basics of FRET Microscopy
Using fluorescence to examine dynamic interactions between probes in living cells.
Microscope Objective Specifications
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
The Diffraction Barrier in Optical Microscopy
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
Introductory Confocal Concepts
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
Introduction to Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)
Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.
Introduction to Microscope Objectives
Objectives are responsible for image formation and the quality of images.
Working Distance and Parfocal Length
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) Excitation
The Nikon yellow fluorescent protein fluorescence filter category comprises a single high-performance balanced combination, which effectively extends the fluorescent protein detection capabilities afforded by the three green fluorescent protein (GFP) filter sets to the longer wavelength enhanced yellow chromatic variants of GFP (YFP and EYFP). The...