Hematogenous Pyelonephritis at 20x Magnification
In general, pyelonephritis is more common in women than men because of the greater ease with which E. coli can invade the female urinary tract due to its close proximity to the rectum. The risk of developing the condition increases significantly for men, however, as they get older, when they are more likely to experience an enlargement of the prostate gland. Factors that increase the likelihood that both men and women will develop pyelonephritis include being a diabetic or having kidney stones, bladder tumors, bladder-related nerve problems, vesicoureteral reflux, or other urinary tract problems. Medical professionals generally recommend that individuals who are at high risk for pyelonephritis or who have recently recovered from an episode drink plenty of water and cranberry juice or take vitamin C tablets, all of which deter bacterial growth in the urinary tract.