Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) Literature References

Among the few significant shortcomings of conventional high-performance CCD cameras is that very low signal levels typically fall beneath the read noise floor of the sensor, limiting the imaging capabilities in a number of currently productive research areas that demand rapid frame-rate capture at extremely low light levels. An innovative method of amplifying low-light-level signals above the CCD read noise is employed in electron multiplying CCD technology. By incorporating on-chip multiplication gain, the EMCCD achieves, in an all solid-state sensor, the single-photon detection sensitivity typical of intensified or electron-bombarded CCDs at much lower cost and without compromising the quantum efficiency and resolution characteristics of the conventional CCD structure. EMCCDs are the detector system of choice for live-cell imaging in real-time applications

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Electron-Multiplying CCD Cameras