Resonant Scanning Confocal Microscopy Literature References
The growing application of fluorescent proteins in live-cell imaging requires microscope imaging speeds on the millisecond timescale in order to unravel the intricate dynamics that occur in many biological processes. Unfortunately, the laser scanning confocal microscope is limited in acquisition speed by the galvanometer mirrors, which are driven with a linear saw-tooth control signal at the rate of approximately 1 microsecond per pixel. This translates to a scan rate ranging from 500 milliseconds to 2 seconds, depending upon the image dimensions. In order to acquire images on faster timescales, laser scanning confocal microscopes must be modified by incorporating advanced scanning scenarios that enable the beam to be raster-scanned across the specimen at higher speeds. To overcome the inherently slow speed of confocal microscopes, several manufacturers have introduced instruments equipped with resonant scanning mirrors that are capable of gathering images at 30 frames per second or higher.
- Callamaras, N. and Parker, I. Construction of a confocal microscope for real-time x-y and x-z imaging. Cell Calcium 26: 271-279 (1999).
- Schwartz, S. Real-time laser-scanning confocal ratio imaging. American Laboratory 25: 26-30 (1993).
- Fan, G. Y., Fujisaki, H., Miyawaki, A., Tasy, R. K., Tsien, R. Y. and Ellisman, M. H. Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons. Biophysical Journal 76: 2412-2420 (1999).
- Borlinghaus, R. T. High speed scanning has the potential to increase fluorescence yield and to reduce photobleaching. Microscopy Research and Technique 69: 689-692 (2006).
- Sanderson, M. J. and Parker, I. Video-rate confocal microscopy. Methods in Enzymology360: 447-481 (2003).
Additional Literature Sources
- Aylward, R. P. The advances and technologies of galvanometer-based optical scanners.Proceedings of SPIE 3787: 158-164 (1999).
- Aylward, R. P. Advanced galvanometer-based optical scanner design. Sensor Review 23:216-222 (2003).
- Bacskai, B. J., Wallen, P., Lev-Ram, V., Grillner, S. and Tsien, R. Y. Activity-related calcium dynamics in lamprey motoneurons as revealed by video-rate confocal microscopy.Neuron 14: 19-28 (1995).
- Bae, Y. S., Moon, S. and Kim, D. Y. High-speed image acquisition synchronized with the motion of galvanometer scanner for confocal microscopy. Proceedings of SPIE 6861:686611 (2008).
- Bullen, A., Friedman, R. S. and Krummel, M. F. Two-photon imaging of the immune system: A custom technology platform for high-speed, multicolor tissue imaging of immune responses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunlogy 334: 1-29 (2009).
- Carlson, A. L., Coghlan, L. G., Gillenwater, A. M. and Richards-Kortum, R. R. Dual-mode reflectance and fluorescence near-video-rate confocal microscope for architectural, morphological and molecular imaging of tissue. Journal of Microscopy 228: 11-24 (2007).
- Hogan, H. Getting up to speed with mirrors. Biophotonics International 14: 47-49 (2007).
- Kumazaki, S., Hasegawa, M., Ghoneim, M., Shimizu, Y., Okamoto, K., Nishiyama, M., Oh-Oka, H. and Terazima, M. A line-scanning semi-confocal multi-photon fluorescence microscope with a simultaneous broadband spectral acquisition and its application to the study of the thylakoid membrane of a cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120. Journal of Microscopy 228:240-254 (2007).
- Leybaert, L., de Meyer, A., Mabilde, C. and Sanderson, M. J. A simple and practical method to acquire geometrically correct images with resonant scanning-based line scanning in a custom-built video-rate laser scanning microscope. Journal of Microscopy 219: 133-140 (2005).
- Light, V. J. and Maverick, G. Paradigm shift in laser scanning confocal microscopy: Resonant real time live spectral imaging for cell dynamics. Journal of Advanced Biotechnology 6: 36-40 (2008).
- Loney, G. C. Scanner component and head development for confocal microscopy using moving mirror technology. Proceedings of SPIE 1987: 129-136 (1993).
- Loney, G. C. and Beach, M. E. Imaging studies of a real-time galvanometer-based point scanning system. Proceedings of SPIE 2665: 2-13 (1996).
- Ma, H., Jiang, J., Ren, H. and Cable, A. E. A video rate laser scanning confocal microscope.Proceedings of SPIE 6861: 68610D (2008).
- Nguyen, Q. T., Callamaras, N., Hsieh, C. and Parker, I. Construction of a two-photon microscope for video-rate calcium imaging. Cell Calcium 30: 383-393 (2001).
- Saino, T. and Satoh, Y. Application of real-time confocal laser scanning microscopy to observe living cells in tissue preparations. Journal of Electron Microscopy (Tokyo) 53: 49-56 (2004).
- Sanderson, M. J. Acquisition of multiple real-time images for laser scanning microscopy.Microscopy and Analysis 18: 17-23 (2004).
- Sung, K. B., Liang, C., Descour, M., Collier, T., Follen, M., Malpica, A. and Richards-Kortum, R. Near real time in vivo fibre optic confocal microscopy: sub-cellular structure resolved.Journal of Microscopy 207: 137-145 (2002).
Books and Book Chapters
- Tsien, R. Y. and Bacskai, B. J. Video-rate confocal microscopy. in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (2nd Edition), Pawley, J. B. (ed), Plenum Press, New York, pages 459-478 (1995).