Resonant Scanning Confocal Microscopy Literature References

The growing application of fluorescent proteins in live-cell imaging requires microscope imaging speeds on the millisecond timescale in order to unravel the intricate dynamics that occur in many biological processes. Unfortunately, the laser scanning confocal microscope is limited in acquisition speed by the galvanometer mirrors, which are driven with a linear saw-tooth control signal at the rate of approximately 1 microsecond per pixel. This translates to a scan rate ranging from 500 milliseconds to 2 seconds, depending upon the image dimensions. In order to acquire images on faster timescales, laser scanning confocal microscopes must be modified by incorporating advanced scanning scenarios that enable the beam to be raster-scanned across the specimen at higher speeds. To overcome the inherently slow speed of confocal microscopes, several manufacturers have introduced instruments equipped with resonant scanning mirrors that are capable of gathering images at 30 frames per second or higher.

Recommended Literature

Additional Literature Sources

Books and Book Chapters

  • Tsien, R. Y. and Bacskai, B. J. Video-rate confocal microscopy. in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (2nd Edition), Pawley, J. B. (ed), Plenum Press, New York, pages 459-478 (1995).

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Resonant Scanning Confocal Microscopy