Specimen Contrast in Optical Microscopy Literature References

Differences in light absorption are often negligible between living cells and their surrounding nutrient medium, as well as between the various intracellular components and plasma membranes, rendering these entities barely visible when observed by brightfield illumination. Phase contrast microscopy takes advantage of minute refractive index differences within cellular components and between unstained cells and their surrounding aqueous medium to produce contrast in these and similar transparent specimens.

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Specimen Contrast in Microscopy