Specimen Contrast in Optical Microscopy Literature References
Differences in light absorption are often negligible between living cells and their surrounding nutrient medium, as well as between the various intracellular components and plasma membranes, rendering these entities barely visible when observed by brightfield illumination. Phase contrast microscopy takes advantage of minute refractive index differences within cellular components and between unstained cells and their surrounding aqueous medium to produce contrast in these and similar transparent specimens.
- Stelzer, E. H. I. Contrast, resolution, pixelation, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio: Fundamental limits to resolution in fluorescence light microscopy. Journal of Microscopy189: 15-24 (1998).
- Rosenthal, C. K. Light Microscopy: Contrast by interference. Nature Milestones | Milestone 8: (2009).
- Barer, R. and Joseph, S. Refractometry of living cells. Part I. Basic principles. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 95: 399-423 (1954).
- Barer, R. and Joseph, S. Refractometry of living cells. Part II. The immersion medium.Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 96: 1-27 (1955).
- Barer, R. Refractometry and interferometry of living cells. Journal of the Optical Society of America 47: 545-556 (1957).
- Liu, H., Beauvoit, B., Kimura, M. and Chance, B. Dependence of tissue optical properties on solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity. Journal of Biomedical Optics1: 200-211 (1996).
Additional Literature Sources
- Brunsting, A. and Mullaney, P. F. Light scattering from coated spheres: Model for biological cells. Applied Optics 11: 675-680 (1972).
- Curl, C. L., Bellair, C. J., Harris, P. J., Allman, B. E., Roberts, A., Nugent, K. A. and Delbridge, L.Quantitative phase microscopy: A new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 31: 896-901 (2004).
- Drezek, R., Dunn, A. and Richards-Kortum, R. Light scattering from cells: Finite-difference time-domain simulations and goniometric measurements. Applied Optics 38: 3651-3661 (1999).
- Feineigle, P. A., Witkin, A. P. and Stonick, V. L. Processing of 3D DIC microscopy images for data visualization. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 4: 2160-2163 (1996).
- Hayden, J. H., Allen, R. D. and Goldman, R. D. Cytoplasmic transport in keratocytes: Direct visualization of particle translocation along microtubules. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3: 1-19 (1983).
- Huxley, A. F. and Niedergerke, R. Structural changes in muscle during contraction: Interference microscopy of living muscle fibres. Nature 173: 971-973 (1954).
- Mourant, J. R., Freyer, J. P., Heilscher, A. H., Eick, A. A., Shen, D. and Johnson, T. M.Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics. Applied Optics 37: 3586-3593 (1998).
- Paddock, S. W. Imaging techniques: Picture the world with kaleidoscope dyes. Current Biology 7: R182-R185 (1997).
- Samson, E. C. and Blanca, C. M. Dynamic contrast enhancement in widefield microscopy using projector-generated illumination patterns. New Journal of Physics 9: 363-14 (2007).
- Schmitt, J. M. and Kumar, G. Optical scattering properties of soft tissue: A discrete particle model. Applied Optics 37: 2788-2797 (1998).
- Tang, S., Sun, C. H., Krasieva, T. B., Chen, Z. and Tromberg, B. J. Imaging subcellular scattering contrast by using combined optical coherence and multiphoton microscopy.Optics Letters 32: 503-505 (2007).
- Videen, G. and Ngo, D. Light scattering multipole solution for a cell. Journal of Biomedical Optics 3: 212-220 (1998).
- Vogt, B., Berker, R. and Mayer, F. Improved contrast by a simplified post-staining procedure for ultrathin sections of resin-embedded bacterial cells: Application of ruthenium red. Journal of Basic Microbiology 35: 349-355 (2007).
Books and Book Chapters
- Bradbury, S. and Evennett, P. J. Contrast Techniques in Light Microscopy, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis, Oxford, United Kingdom, 136 pages (1996).
- Junqueira, L. and Carneiro, J. Basic Histology: Text and Atlas, McGraw-Hill Medical, New York, New York, 544 pages (2005).
- Mescher, A. Junqueira's Basic Histology, McGraw-Hill Medical, New York, New York, 480 pages (2009).
- Murphy, D. Phase contrast microscopy and Ddark-field microscopy. in Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Digital Imaging, Wiley-Liss, New York, pages 97-112 (2001).
- Ross, M. H. and Pawlina, W. Histology: A Text and Atlas: With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, New York, New York, 906 pages (2006).
- Rost, F. and Oldfield R. Phase-contrast microscopy. in Part II. Special Optical Techniques, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 119-166 (2000).
- Tanev, S., Pond, J., Paddon, P. and Tuchin V. V. A finite-difference time-domain model of optical phase contrast microscope imaging. in Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging, Springer Netherlands, Amsterdam, pages 243-257 (2007).