Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Microscopy Literature References

STED is based on non-linear optical effects that typically require the application of multiple high-intensity pulsed lasers with specialized modulation filters to control the excitation beam geometry (a technique commonly termed point-spread function engineering). The excessively high cost of pulsed lasers has been addressed with the introduction of CW-STED systems that implement lower cost continuous wave lasers. Even though point-spread function modifying schemes are capable of achieving lateral resolution measured in the tens of nanometers, these methods can potentially damage specimens with high levels of excitation light and require fluorescent probes that are resistant to photobleaching. Furthermore, they rely on highly complex and specialized microscope configurations that are difficult for the average cell biologist to assemble.

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Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED)