EGFP and mCherry as Probes for Cell Division
The final stage in the process of cell division is known as cytokinesis, which usually begins during late anaphase or early telophase as the nuclear envelope and nucleoli are reforming and the chromosomes are de-condensing. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm divides by a process termed cleavage, driven by the tightening of a contractile ring composed of actin and myosin protein subunits. As the ring of cytoskeletal proteins contracts, a cleavage furrow is formed perpendicular to the mitotic spindle and gradually splits the cytoplasm and its contents into two daughter cells. In the digital videos presented above, normal pig kidney (LLC-PK1 line) epithelial cells labeled with EGFP fused to human alpha-tubulin (illuminating microtubules in the cytoskeletal network) and mCherry fused to human histone H2B (highlighting the chromosomes) are visualized undergoing mitosis in laser scanning confocal microscopy.