The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
Discussion of birefringence, Brewster's angle, and various forms of polarized light.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
Using fluorescence to examine dynamic interactions between probes in living cells.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.
Objectives are responsible for image formation and the quality of images.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
The Nikon yellow fluorescent protein fluorescence filter category comprises a single high-performance balanced combination, which effectively extends the fluorescent protein detection capabilities afforded by the three green fluorescent protein (GFP) filter sets to the longer wavelength enhanced yellow chromatic variants of GFP (YFP and EYFP). The...