The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
Discussion of birefringence, Brewster's angle, and various forms of polarized light.
Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.
The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.
Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.