The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
Objectives are responsible for image formation and the quality of images.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.
Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
These microscopes feature a parallel optical path between the objective and the tube lens.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
Discussion of the properties of various fluorescence filter combinations.