The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Using phase-related optical techniques to increase specimen contrast.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.
Objectives are responsible for image formation and the quality of images.
These microscopes feature a parallel optical path between the objective and the tube lens.