The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
Objectives are responsible for image formation and the quality of images.
Discussion of birefringence, Brewster's angle, and various forms of polarized light.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.
The Nikon yellow fluorescent protein fluorescence filter category comprises a single high-performance balanced combination, which effectively extends the fluorescent protein detection capabilities afforded by the three green fluorescent protein (GFP) filter sets to the longer wavelength enhanced yellow chromatic variants of GFP (YFP and EYFP). The YFP HYQ filter combination...