The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.
Using phase-related optical techniques to increase specimen contrast.
Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.
These microscopes feature a parallel optical path between the objective and the tube lens.