Popular Articles

  1. Resolution

    The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.

  2. Introduction to Fluorescence Microscopy

    Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.

  3. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.

  4. Introduction to Phase Contrast Microscopy

    A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.

  5. Numerical Aperture

    The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.

  6. Refractive Index (Index of Refraction)

    The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.

  7. Depth of Field and Depth of Focus

    Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.

  8. Introductory Confocal Concepts

    A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.

  9. Principles of Birefringence

    Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.

  10. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.

  1. Microscope Objective Specifications

    The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.

  2. Introduction to Fluorescent Proteins

    Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.

  3. Multiphoton Microscopy

    Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.

  4. The Diffraction Barrier in Optical Microscopy

    Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.

  5. Field of View

    The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.

  6. Infinity Optical Systems

    These microscopes feature a parallel optical path between the objective and the tube lens.

  7. Working Distance and Parfocal Length

    The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.

  8. Introduction to Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)

    Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.

  9. Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) Excitation

    The Nikon yellow fluorescent protein fluorescence filter category comprises a single high-performance balanced combination, which effectively extends the fluorescent protein detection capabilities afforded by the three green fluorescent protein (GFP) filter sets to the longer wavelength enhanced yellow chromatic variants of GFP (YFP and EYFP). The YFP HYQ filter combination...

  10. Introduction to Polarized Light

    Discussion of birefringence, Brewster's angle, and various forms of polarized light.