The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Discussion of birefringence, Brewster's angle, and various forms of polarized light.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.
Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.
Using fluorescence to examine dynamic interactions between probes in living cells.
Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.