The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.
Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.
Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.
A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.
The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.
Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.
Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.
A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.
Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.
TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.
Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.
The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.
Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.
Using fluorescence to examine dynamic interactions between probes in living cells.
Discussion of birefringence, Brewster's angle, and various forms of polarized light.
The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.
Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.
The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.
Objectives are responsible for image formation and the quality of images.