Popular Articles

  1. Resolution

    The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.

  2. Depth of Field and Depth of Focus

    Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.

  3. Numerical Aperture

    The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.

  4. Introduction to Fluorescence Microscopy

    Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.

  5. Introduction to Phase Contrast Microscopy

    A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.

  6. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.

  7. Working Distance and Parfocal Length

    The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.

  8. Refractive Index (Index of Refraction)

    The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.

  9. Field of View

    The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.

  10. Introductory Confocal Concepts

    A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.

  1. Principles of Birefringence

    Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.

  2. Microscope Objective Specifications

    The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.

  3. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.

  4. Specimen Contrast in Optical Microscopy

    Using phase-related optical techniques to increase specimen contrast.

  5. Introduction to Fluorescent Proteins

    Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.

  6. Multiphoton Microscopy

    Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.

  7. The Diffraction Barrier in Optical Microscopy

    Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.

  8. Properties of Microscope Objectives

    Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.

  9. Introduction to Microscope Objectives

    Objectives are responsible for image formation and the quality of images.

  10. Infinity Optical Systems

    These microscopes feature a parallel optical path between the objective and the tube lens.