Popular Articles

  1. Resolution

    The resolving power of a microscope is the most important feature of the optical system.

  2. Introduction to Fluorescence Microscopy

    Basic equipment and techniques necessary for observing specimens in fluorescence.

  3. Depth of Field and Depth of Focus

    Fundamentals of the axial or longitudinal properties of microscope objectives.

  4. Introduction to Phase Contrast Microscopy

    A mechanism to translate variations in phase into corresponding changes in amplitude.

  5. Numerical Aperture

    The ability of a microscope objective to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail.

  6. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Using crossed polarized illumination to examine birefringent materials.

  7. Field of View

    The eyepiece field diaphragm determines the diameter (size) of the microscope viewfield.

  8. Working Distance and Parfocal Length

    The distance between the objective front lens or the nosepiece and the specimen.

  9. Refractive Index (Index of Refraction)

    The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the imaging medium of a microscope.

  10. Introductory Confocal Concepts

    A discussion of point scanning and pinhole detection using photomultipliers.

  1. Microscope Objective Specifications

    The nomenclature and abbreviations inscribed on the objective protective barrel.

  2. Principles of Birefringence

    Defined as double refraction of light in a transparent, molecularly ordered material.

  3. The Diffraction Barrier in Optical Microscopy

    Limitations on optical microscope resolution imposed by physical laws.

  4. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    TIRF restricts the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen.

  5. Introduction to Fluorescent Proteins

    Genetically-encoded fluorescent probes that are revolutionizing live-cell imaging.

  6. Multiphoton Microscopy

    Mode-locked pulsed lasers are used for deep tissue imaging and optical sectioning.

  7. Introduction to Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)

    Fundamental properties of CCDs, including pixels, readout, noise, and timing.

  8. Specimen Contrast in Optical Microscopy

    Using phase-related optical techniques to increase specimen contrast.

  9. Properties of Microscope Objectives

    Discussion of numerical aperture, magnification, and aberration correction.

  10. Infinity Optical Systems

    These microscopes feature a parallel optical path between the objective and the tube lens.