The fluorescence microscope provides an interesting window into the world of the cell and is one of the biologist's favorite tools for the examination of both living and fixed cells in culture. The ability to specifically target organelles and macromolecules with synthetic fluorophores and immunofluorescence has produced a virtual revolution in the dynamic field of fluorescence microscopy for the examination of cells in culture. This portion of the fluorescence digital image gallery features widefield fluorescence images captured from over 30 cell lines stained with a mixture of synthetic probes, antibodies, and fluorescent proteins.
Normal African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (CV-1 Line)
The CV-1 cell line is a widely utilized fibroblast line that was established in the mid-1960s. When the line was first initiated, CV-1 cells were primarily used in investigations of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). More recently, the CV-1 line has garnered a significant amount of usage as a host for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) research. The cells are also often employed in transfection experiments with simian virus 40 (SV40) and recombinant plasmid vectors. CV-1 cells demonstrate susceptibility to a variety of viruses, including herpes simplex, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis, poliovirus 1, California encephalitis, and simian virus 40.
Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-1 Line)
COS-1 is a transformed cell line that was developed by Yakov Gluzman from the CV-1 line. Two other similarly transformed lines, COS-3 and COS-7, were also initiated from the CV-1 line by Gluzman. The COS-1 cell line was produced via transformation of the previously established line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 (SV40) that codes for wild type large tumor antigen (T antigen). Integrated into COS-1 cells is a copy of the entire early region of the SV40 genome.
Transformed (Simian Virus 40) African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line)
The COS-7 cell line is a line developed from the standard CV-1 African green monkey kidney line by transforming the normal cells with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 that codes for the wild-type large tumor antigen. COS-7 cells exhibit fibroblast morphology and are often utilized in transfection experiments. COS-7 cells fully permit the lytic growth of SV40 and the replication of populations of SV40 mutants with deletions in the early region.
African Water Mongoose Skin Fibroblast Cells (A.P. Mongoose Line)
The skin tissue of an African water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus) served as the original source of cells from which the A.P. Mongoose line was established by The Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL). Similar to other fibroblast lines, A.P. Mongoose cells are relatively easy to grow in culture dishes. It is widely assumed among cell biologists that the fibroblast tendency to readily grow and proliferate in vitro is linked to their function in the body, where they are extremely important for wound healing.
Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (BPAE Line)
The BPAE cell line was established in the late 1970s from tissue excised from the main stem of the pulmonary artery of a young cow (Bos taurus). The cells exhibit endothelial morphology and are widely used in studies relating to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. BPAE cells are positive for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a substance closely associated with the control of blood pressure and volume. The cells have also tested positive for bovine diarrhea virus, an important bovine viral pathogen.
Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO-K1 Line)
CHO-K1 is a cell line that was derived as a subclone from the parental CHO cell line established from the excised tissue of adult Chinese hamster ovary by T. T. Puck in 1957. Unlike the original CHO line, CHO-K1 cells require proline in the medium for growth in culture. Often utilized as a transfection host, the CHO-K1 line is susceptible to a number of viruses including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain) and the Getah virus. CHO-K1 cells are resistant to poliovirus 2, Modoc virus, and button willow virus. The cells, which exhibit typical epithelial cell characteristics and grow adherently to plastic and glass in culture, are negative for reverse transcriptase.
Embryonic Swiss Mouse Fibroblast Cells (3T3 Line)
The 3T3 line was initiated in the early 1960s by George Todaro and Howard Green from the tissue of an albino Swiss mouse embryo. The cells, which are heavily utilized in biomedical research laboratories around the world, exhibit contact inhibited motility and generally tend to form confluent monolayers. Testing has established that most variants of the initial 3T3 cell line are susceptible to polyoma and simian virus 40 (SV40). The cells are known to be negative for the mousepox virus and for the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Medial Layer Myoblast Cells (A-10 Line)
The myoblast cell line A-10 was established from tissue excised from the medial layer of the thoracic aorta of a rat embryo (Rattus norvegicus; DB1X strain). A-10 cells are frequently utilized in medical research, especially in studies of hypertension and other conditions and diseases potentially associated with smooth muscle cells. When cultures of the cells reach the stationary phase of the growth cycle, they produce spontaneous action potentials and experience increased enzymatic activity of myokinase and creatine phosphokinase. The cellular products of A-10 cells also include myosin, the protein that provides the elastic and contractile properties of muscle.
Embryonic Rat Thoracic Aorta Smooth Muscle Fibroblast Cells (A7r5 Line)
The A7r5 fibroblast cell line was initiated from smooth muscle tissue excised from the thoracic aorta of a rat embryo (DB1X strain). Similar to other smooth muscle cells, A7r5 cells produce muscle-type isoenzymes, including myokinase and creatine phosphokinase. Activity of the isoenzymes increases when cultures of A7r5 cells reach a stationary phase. The fibroblasts also produce myosin, the protein that provides muscle with its characteristic elastic and contractile properties. Typical applications of the A7r5 line include biophysical and biochemical studies.
Grey Fox Lung Fibroblast Cells (FoLu Line)
The FoLu cell line was established from the lung tissue of an adult female grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). The cells are primarily used in virus studies and exhibit characteristics typically associated with fibroblasts. The FoLu line is susceptible to vesicular stomatitis, herpes simplex, and vaccinia viruses, but is resistant to poliovirus. FoLu cells are negative for reverse transcriptase, indicating their lack of integral retrovirus genomes. In culture the cells typically forming monolayers that adhere to glass or plastic surfaces.
Guinea Pig Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Epithelial Cells (GPC-16 Line)
GPC-16 is a cell line was developed in the early 1980s from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue excised from a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) that was administered 56 milligrams of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea intrarectally over a 28-week period. The cells are positive for both PAS (Periodic acid-Schiff) and for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. GPC-16 cells are negative for reverse transcriptase, indicating an absence of integral retrovirus genomes. The epithelial cells grow adherently to both plastic and glass surfaces in culture. Studies have demonstrated that GPC-16 cells, which are often utilized in transfection experiments, are tumorigenic in murine specimens.
Horse Dermal Fibroblast Cells (NBL-6 Line)
The NBL-6 cell line was initiated from the dermis of a 4-year-old female horse (Equus caballus; quarterhorse strain). NBL-6 cells demonstrate susceptibility to many viruses, including reovirus 3, herpes simplex, vesicular stomatitis (Ogden strain), and vaccinia. The cells are known to be resistant to coxsackieviruses A9 and B5, adenovirus 5, and poliovirus 2. Utilized in a wide array of research and for equine vaccine production, the NBL-6 line is especially notable for its usage in investigations of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a contagious disease that is thought to be increasingly affecting populations of horses in many countries.
Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (U-2 OS Line)
The U-2 OS line was established in the 1960s by J. Ponten and E. Saksela from bone tissue removed from a moderately differentiated sarcoma of the tibia found in a fifteen-year-old female diagnosed with osteosarcoma. Testing has shown that the human epithelial line is negative for simian virus 40, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenoviruses. U-2 OS cells are positive for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) receptors. The established line also expresses various antigens, including blood type A, Rh+, HLA A2, Aw30, B12, Bw35, and B40(+/-).
Human Brain Glioma Cells (U-118 MG Line)
U-118 MG is a cell line that was developed from the tissue of a malignant glioma excised from a 50-year-old Caucasian male. The line exhibits mixed morphology, with both glioblastoma and astrocytoma cells being present in U-118 MG cultures. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that U-118 MG cells are tumorigenic in murine species when they are inoculated with the cells subcutaneously. In the 1980s, mycoplasma contamination of major stocks of the line was detected and subsequently eliminated by treatment with BM-cycline. Another cell line, dubbed U-138 MG, is nearly identical to the U-118 MG line though the cells were reportedly developed from distinct sources.
Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells (HeLa Line)
A well known cell line, HeLa was initiated in the early 1950s from a tissue sample excised from the adenocarcinoma of the cervix. HeLa cells revolutionized the field of cell biology by becoming the first human cells able to survive indefinitely in culture. The HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell line tests positive for keratin and lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), which induces AP-1 activity and c-jun N-terminal kinase activity (JNK1) via a protein kinase C-independent pathway. The cells are also known to contain human papilloma virus 18 (HPV-18) sequences.
Human Cortical Neuronal Cells (HCN-1A Line)
The HCN-1A cell line is a human cortical neuronal line that was initiated from tissue excised from a young female patient whose treatment for intractable seizures included a hemispherectomy. The cells are commonly utilized to model neuronal processes for scientific study. HCN-1A cells test positive for somatostatin, glutamate, neuron specific enolase, tubulin, vimentin, gamma aminobutyric acid, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and cholecystokinin-8, but are negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basis protein. By culturing the cortical neuronal cells with a cocktail of nerve growth factor, dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and 1-isobutyl-3-methylxanthine, their differentiation can be induced. When HCN-1A cells differentiate, they assume mature morphology and their growth rate slows considerably.
Human Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cells (MRC-5 Line)
The MRC-5 cell line was developed by J. P. Jacobs in the mid-1960s from the pulmonary tissue of an aborted 14-week-old male human fetus. The fibroblast line exhibits adherent growth to glass and polymer culture dishes and can double in population size more than 40 times before senescence occurs. MRC-5 cells are negative for reverse transcriptase and are known to be susceptible to a number of viruses, including herpes simplex, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain), and poliovirus 1. The MRC-5 line is a popular cell line often used in a variety of applications, such as virology-related transfection experiments, cytotoxicity assessments, and the development of vaccines.
Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A-549 Line)
The A-549 cell line was established in the early 1970s from the tissue of a human lung carcinoma excised from a 58-year old Caucasian male. The epithelial cells stain positive for keratin and are negative for reverse transcriptase. Though utilized in a wide array of research, A-549 cells have been employed especially in scientific studies of viral infections associated with asthma, asbestos-related tissue damage, emphysema, and other respiratory problems. Work carried out by M. Lieber and associates indicate that the cells synthesize lecithin with a high proportion of desaturated fatty acids via the cytidine diphosphocholine pathway.
Iguana Heart Epithelial Cells (IgH-2 Line)
The IgH-2 line was established from the heart tissue of an immature male green iguana (Iguana iguana). IgH-2 cells exhibit many of the typical characteristics of epithelial cells and are often used to propagate viruses. Testing indicates that the cells can support the replication of various iguana viruses as well as the herpes simplex virus, pseudorabies virus, and vaccinia virus. Cultured IgH-2 cells are known to be resistant to the growth of poliovirus 1 and vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain). The cells are negative for the enzyme reverse transcriptase, an indicator of the lack of integral retrovirus genomes.
Indian Muntjac Deer Skin Fibroblast Cells
The Indian Muntjac epidermal cell line was initiated in 1969 from a sample of tissue from an adult male member of the species Muntiacus muntjac vaginalis obtained via a skin biopsy. The normal fibroblast line is commonly utilized to facilitate chromosomal research. Indian Muntjac cells are known to be susceptible to a variety of viruses, including vesicular stomatitis, (Indiana strain), herpes simplex, and vaccinia. The cells demonstrate resistance to poliovirus 1 and are negative for reverse transcriptase. Testing indicates that the Indian Muntjac deer skin fibroblast line produces detectable bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigens and infectious BVDV virions.
Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDCK Line)
S. H. Madin and N. B. Darby initiated the MDCK line in 1958 by from the kidney tissue of an adult female cocker spaniel. The cells exhibit typical epithelial morphology and stain positive for keratin. MDCK cells demonstrate susceptibility to a number of viruses, including infectious canine hepatitis, coxsackievirus B5, reoviruses 2 and 3, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain), adenoviruses 4 and 5, vesicular exanthema of swine, and vaccinia. The cells, which are negative for the enzyme reverse transcriptase, are known to be resistant to poliovirus 2 and coxsackieviruses B3 and B4. The MDCK line is a popular tool for studies focusing on the processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein and its proteolytic products.
Madin-Darby Ovine Kidney Epithelial Cells (MDOK Line)
The Madin-Darby ovine kidney (MDOK) cell line was established in the 1950s from kidney tissue excised from a normal adult male sheep (Ovis aries). The cells exhibit epithelial characteristics and are useful in virology and veterinary virology research. MDOK cells are known to be susceptible to a variety of viruses, including sheep bluetongue virus, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana and New Jersey strains), and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Similar to other epithelial lines, MDOK cells experience significant contact inhibition of migration in culture. The cells grow adherently to both glass and polymer surfaces.
Male Rat Kangaroo Kidney Epithelial Cells (PtK2 Line)
PtK2 is a cell line that was initiated from renal tissue excised from an adult male rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylus), a marsupial native to Australia. PtK2 cells exhibit epithelial morphology and stain positive for the intermediate filament protein keratin. PtK2 cells demonstrate susceptibility to an array of viruses, including herpes simplex, coxsackievirus A9, vesicular stomatitis (Ogden strain), and vaccinia. The line is known to be resistant to poliovirus 2, adenovirus 5, and coxsackievirus B5. PtK2 is a particularly popular line with scientists carrying out research on the mitotic process.
Mink Uterus Endometrium Epithelial Cells (GMMe Line)
The GMMe cell line is an epithelial line that tests positive for the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin and vimentin, but is negative for desmin. The line is also positive for the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Initiation of the GMMe line entailed the stable transfection of endometrial tissue excised from the uterus of an adult mink (Mustela vison) utilizing a plasmid vector encoding simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) driven by the human beta-actin promoter. The cells were then cotransfected with another plasmid vector in order to provide them with neomycin resistance. Cell selection was carried out in medium containing G418, an aminoglycoside commonly used as a selective agent of transfected cells.
Mink Uterus Endometrium Fibroblast Cells (GMMs Line)
Similar to the closely related GMMe cell line, the GMMs line was established via stable transfection of mink (Mustela vison) endometrial tissue using a plasmid vector encoding the SV40 large T antigen driven by the human beta-actin promoter. The cells were cotransfected with a second plasmid vector in order to impart neomycin resistance and were selected in medium containing G418. Unlike GMMe cells, however, which exhibit epithelial morphology, GMMs cells display characteristics associated with cells of stromal origin. The fibroblast-like GMMs cells are positive for the intermediate filament protein vimentin and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, but are negative for desmin and cytokeratin.
Mongolian Gerbil Lung Fibroblast Cells (GeLu Line)
The GeLu cell line was established from the lung tissue of a female Mongolian gerbil that was 403 days old. Scientifically described as Meriones unguiculatus, the Mongolian gerbil is a small rodent native to the hot, arid regions of Africa and Asia. The GeLu cell line grows adherently to both glass and plastic surfaces in culture and exhibits typical fibroblast morphology. The cells are known to be susceptible to several viruses, including adenovirus 2, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain), Semliki forest, germiston, and herpes simplex. GeLu cells demonstrate resistance to polioviruses 1 and 3, and they are negative for reverse transcriptase.
Mouse Hemangioendothelioma Endothelial Cells (EOMA Line)
A diverse group of vascular neoplasms that typically feature a red or blue nodular appearance and exhibit characteristics intermediate between those of a benign hemangioma and malignant angiosarcoma are known as hemangioendotheliomas. The EOMA cell line was initiated in the early 1980s from a mixed murine hemangioendothelioma excised from an adult member of the species Mus musculus. EOMA hemangioendothelioma cells synthesize a variety of substances, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), endostatin, interleukin-6, thrombospondin, and cathepsin L. EOMA cells also express surface receptors for acetylated low-density lipoprotein and vascular addressin, a cell adhesion molecule unique to endothelial tissues.
Opossum Kidney Cortex Epithelial Cells (OK Line)
The OK line was initiated from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum and was originally intended for use as a source of X chromosomes for studies of X inactivation. The line was soon discovered, however, to display numerous characteristics of kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells and has since been commonly utilized as a cell culture model for the cell type. OK cells exhibit a stable nondiploid chromosomal modal number of 23 and display a variety of receptors in culture, including alpha 2 adrenergic, serotonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors. Many studies utilizing OK cells focus upon these receptors.
Owl Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (OMK Line)
Established from the kidney tissue of an adult female owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), OMK cells exhibit typical epithelial morphology and grow adherently to glass and polymer surfaces in culture. The OMK line is susceptible to a number of non-human primate viruses, including herpesvirus aotus, herpesvirus saimiri, and herpesvirus ateles, and is chiefly utilized for their propagation in scientific studies. OMK cells have also, however, been used for a variety of other purposes, especially in research related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS.
Rabbit Kidney Epithelial Cells (RK13 Line)
The RK13 cell line was initiated from the kidney tissue of a 5-week-old rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The cells exhibit typical epithelial characteristics and are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. In the mid-1990s, studies demonstrated that the RK13 cell line, as well as a wide array of other cell lines originating from various species, had been contaminated with the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). RK13 cells are commonly used to isolate viruses and as transfection hosts. The cells are known to be susceptible to herpes simplex, rabbitpox, myxoma, pseudorabies virus, B virus, vaccinia, rubellavirus, and simian adenoviruses.
Rat Jejunum Myenteric Plexus Enteroglial Cells (EGC/PK060399egfr Line)
The EGC/PK060399egfr line is a relatively new enteroglial cell line initiated by a team of German researchers. The line was derived from a myenteric plexus sample from the jejunum of an adult male laboratory rat (Rattus rattus; Sprague-Dawley strain). EGC/PK060399egfr cells exhibit adherent growth and strong glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100, and vimentin immunoreactivities in culture. The line does not show signs of Thy-1.1, desmin, smooth muscle alpha-actin, or C3 complement receptor immunoreactivity.
Rhesus Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cells (LLC-MK2 Line)
The LLC-MK2 line was initiated from a pooled cell suspension prepared from kidneys removed from six adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the mid-1950s. The cell line is often utilized as a host in transfection experiments and is known to be susceptible to polioviruses 1, 2, and 3. LLC-MK2 cells produce the protease plasminogen activator associated with the kidneys that typically initiates the process of fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen to plasmin. The cells are negative for the enzyme reverse transcriptase and exhibit epithelial morphology. They exhibit adherent growth to glass and polymer surfaces in culture.
Swiss Mouse Embryo Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Transfected Fibroblast Cells (CRE BAG 2 Line)
The CRE BAG 2 cell line was initiated from the NIH 3T3 embryonic Swiss mouse fibroblast cell line by transfection of the previously established line with Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived proviral genomes with complementary mutations in the gag-pol or env regions. The genomes contained a deletion of the psi sequence needed for the efficient encapsidation of retroviral genomes into virus particles, as well as further alterations at the 3' end of the provirus. CRE BAG2 cells produce a beta-galactosidase-transducing vector (BAG) and are similar in many ways to the psi 2 BAG alpha line. The line can be utilized to package vectors derived from murine leukemia viruses and is positive for reverse transcriptase.
Tahr Ovary Epithelial Cells (HJ1.Ov Line)
A sample of ovarian tissue excised from a Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) served as the source from which the HJ1.Ov cell line was initiated. The Himalayan tahr is a relative of the wild goat native to the southern slopes of the Himalayas that has been introduced to New Zealand and other areas, where it tends to have a negative impact on native flora and fauna. The HJ1.Ov line was established by The Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) located in Oakland, California. The cells are epithelial in morphology and exhibit adherent growth to glass and polymer surfaces in monolayer culture. Similar to other epithelial cells, HJ1.Ov cells experience significant contact inhibition of migration.